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現象学は<思考の原理>である 

読み終えたのは半月ほど前のコトなんですが、メモを纏めるのにえらく時間がかかってしまった!
しかも、第4章の欲望論は集中力が落ちちゃって、かなり大雑把な把握しかしておりませぬ…。
実はこの本、数年前に購入して中途で脱落した私にとっては非常に難解なテーマの作品でした。
再読して気づいたのは、難解だったのではなくて非常に回りくどい説明をしているんですよねー。
竹田先生は、学会ですら現象学がきちんと内容把握されていない現実に対する憤りがあった模様。
その気持ちはお察ししますけど、フッサール先生同様竹田先生も相当に分かりづらい解説ですよ!
基本構成が、誤解⇒正解ルートへ流れるのですが、出来れば最初に正解を提示して欲しいなあ。
途中で挫折しちゃうと、現象学を一生誤解したまんまで終えちゃいますよ…。

とまれ、私はこのように現象学についてまるで何にも分かっていなかったのですが、意外なことに、
無意識のうちにブログ上で現象学的還元法を用いた感想や作品解説を行っていたみたいデス。
恐らく、腐女子的なモノの見方と現象学的還元方法論は、かなり近い場所にあるのでは無いかと。
特に、ゲーム理論と欲望理論は示唆に富む内容だったと思います。

<作品データ>
・竹田青嗣『現象学は<思考の原理>である』(ちくま新書393)2004.1
現象学は思考の原理である現象学は思考の原理である
(2004/01/10)
竹田 青嗣

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↓以下はいつもの備忘メモ…気が向いたら修正します。


□(人間の)<世界観>@二重の観点(視線)←現象学的エッセンス
Ⅰ.主観的観点…X
 a.「実存の世界視線」
 b.「自分の世界」=「自分の生」=「実存の孤独」byバタイユ
 c.共通了解が成立していない領域@世界観、価値観、美意識、「物語」的要素~多様的
 d.「現象学的」視点
 e.「内在」…「射映」…注意の中心点…ノエシス…(メルロー=ポンティ)…コギタチオ(フッサール)
 f.感性的事態~表象様式は無限
Ⅱ.客観的観点…V
 a.「客観化の世界視線」
 b.「自然的態度」@自分⇔世界を客観的な関係として眺める視線←想像的
 c.共通了解が成立している領域@表層の構造
 d.「構造主義」的視点
 e.「超越」…「全体」…背景領域…ノエマ…(メルロー=ポンティ)…コギタツム(フッサール)
 f.概念的な事態

□現象学@「思考の原理」~<Ⅱ>をエポケー(判断停止)⇒純粋意識に還元
 ・「現象学的還元」≒「超越論(先験)的還元」<Transzendentale Reduction>=遡行
 ・「絶対的真理の不可能性」の直観
 ・「公共的な妥当性への一般的信憑」感覚~暗黙の信憑、共通了解
 ・「本質観取」…「確信の成立」(「誤解」、解釈の多様性含む)

□現代思想@「反=哲学」(ex.言語哲学、ポストモダン)
 ・“普遍性の洞察”(=哲学)という知の本質を相対化して喪失するものby竹田(P.26)
 ・現代の「不安」の意識の現われbyフーコー『言葉と物』
 ・ニヒリズムbyニーチェ
 ・ロマンチックな本性@精神の自由<エスプリ>への希求の感度⇔閉塞感
 ・徹底的な否定性or「イロニー」(アイロニズム)byヘーゲル
  ⇔.ユルゲン・ハーバーマス@「主観性の哲学」or「間主観性の哲学」byリチャード・ローティ
  ex.ポストモダニズム⇒「精神の自由」(エスプリ)への希求の感度
   ・反規範主義
   ・反形而上学
   ・「脱構築」…「差異の戯れ」byデリダ
  ∴“文学的”な思想@仏思想

ゲーム(アイテム+ルール+プレイヤー)三位一体構造、「百聞は一見にしかず」?
※ゲーム@システム(←分析哲学)の本質は、プレイしてみないと把握できない!
 )「機能的ゲーム」~制度化された人為的ゲーム、目的が明白
 )「身体関係的ゲーム」~「言語」、「社会」~<多様性>
  ∴ルールを刷新or無限遡行byヴィトゲンシュタイン≒微分構造?
  ↑厳密な分析不可能…「信念対立」が生じる下地

□言語@“神”?
Ⅰ.デリダ@ソフィスト
 ・エクリチュールこそがパロールに先行する
  ↑文学的な表現の理論として強いリアリティを持っていた
 ・徹底的な相対化⇒作家の死~テクスト論、創造性、多様性←致命的欠陥アリ
 ex.「時間のなかでの性行為の在り方は、空間の中での虎の在り方に等しい」byバタイユ
  ≒人生@蕩尽
※作者-[企投]→文学表現(芸術)→文学的営為(表現性)←[信憑構造]-表現的意味←読者
  *「表現的意味」⇔「表意的意味」(命令、指摘、説明、勧誘、など)
Ⅱ.ソシュール
 )言語記号=「シニフィアン(表記)」+「シニフィエ(意味)」
 )ラング(一般規範)=「パラディグム」(一般意味のルール)+「シンタグム」(統辞的ルール)
Ⅲ.現象学 
 ・「言語」=「幻想的身体」+「社会的ルール」
 ・言語行為=「企投的意味」+「一般意味」(「一般意味」⇒「企投的意味」)

言語行為は、一般的に、言語によって他者と世界を共有しようとする関係的な試み(企投)であって、人は、「語の一般意味」を利用して自分のそのつどの「企投的な意味」を他者に投げかけようとする(P163)


=実存的企投に発する他者との世界了解の共有(分有)
 ※「意味」の両義性 (パロールの増殖⇒ラングの更新)
  )ラング(ソシュール)、指標<Anzeichen>(フッサール)
  )パロール(ソシュール)、表現<Ausdruck>(フッサール)
  )implication

言語の意味のシステム(体系)は、つねに一般的規定性を“越え出る”場所をめがけて使用される(P176)



□欲望論
)世界性
)「身体性」の本質契機(空間化-時間化)
)「エロス的身体」(幻想的身体)
)「自己」と「欲望」
)「他者」
)関係世界
)共同性と社会性

生き物はその「欲望=身体」に共通性、類似性、連関性があるかぎりで<世界>を共有する(P196)


Ⅰ.ニーチェ@「価値の哲学」の創始者byジル・ドゥルーズ
 「意味」<「価値」⇒「力への意思」⇒「生への意思」⇒「欲望」

「主体」としての「人間」の本質は、「幻想的な身体性」として「世界」に対してエロス相関的な関係を結んでいる(P191)


Ⅱ.ハイデガー
 ・欲望が関係に先行
 ・「情状性」(「気分」)-「了解」-「語り」(人間固有)
  ※「到来性」(非知的)⇒「情状性」⇒「主体」を内的に触発⇒指標・「可能性」の連関(了解)
Ⅲ.メルロー=ポンティ

意識とは、原初的には<われ惟う>ではなくて<われ能う>である(P205)


Ⅳ.ジャック・ラカン
 ※「あらゆる欲望は存在欠如の換喩である」
 ⇒「シニフィアンの連鎖」⇒「φ」=ファロス …ex.ルアー(擬似針)@欲望を引きつける記号、誘惑
 cf.バタイユ@「禁止と侵犯」
Ⅴ.現象学
 ・「換喩」性~人間のエロスのフェティッシュな本質機制
 ・関係が関係に関係しているbyキルケゴール
 ・「情状性」byハイデガー=「無意識」byフロイト=「絶対本質」byヘーゲル=「力」byニーチェ=「至高性」byバタイユ=「欲望」「情動」「気分」
  )「価値対象性」~真善美
  )身体的な「リリシズム」~ロマン、センチメンタル、ノスタルジー、プラトニズム、シニシズム、ニヒリズム
   ①.ロマン@時間的、空間的に向こう側にある対象に対する憧れとしての世界を志向する心性
   ②センチメンタル@時間的過去志向&自己愛惜(感傷)性
 ・「眼差し」の構造
 ⇒「存在過剰の換喩である」≒「存在を捏造すること」⇒「関係の世界」
[ 2007/11/03 00:31 ] non-fiction | TB(60) | CM(0)
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