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文化と両義性 

個人的に満足してます。
中途で放置していた、『文化と両義性』のメモ完全版です。
私のBLに対する考察も、何とかほんの少し触れることができました。

年内にまとめることができて、本当に良かった!
個人的自己満足の範疇ですが、感無量な気持ちでいっぱいです。

<作品データ>
・山口昌男『文化と両義性』(岩波現代文庫)2000.5
 ISBN4-00-600016-2
文化と両義性 文化と両義性
山口 昌男 (2000/05)
岩波書店
この商品の詳細を見る


↓長いので要注意。


■異和性~内と外の間にあるような帰属のちがい、質のちがい
 ex.T.S.エリオット『異神を求めて』(荒地出版社)1957
 cf.違和:「からだの調和が破れること」
     →「他のものとしっくりこないこと、ちぐはぐ」(『広辞苑』)
    「」:同質のものの間の微妙なちがい
        内側に属するもののちがい、量のちがい
    「」:日本文化の支配的理念
 ∴「異和性」=文化の内と外の関係の問題考察のための概念装置
■両義性(ambiguity)
 ・「現実の多義性」
 ・「意味の多義性」
 ⇒文化記号論の意義

<神話的思考>
□混沌:カオス、闇、自然、反秩序、「負」の象徴、反人間、タナトス(死)、周縁
□仲介者神@至高神両義的存在or多義的存在)策略or呪術を用いる
 ex.キリスト@偽王(モックキング)、カーニヴァル、道化⇒変幻自在
□秩序:文化、宇宙(コスモス)、中心、エロス(生)
混沌秩序相互規定的パラダイム的に対立している
■究極因(エンテレヒー)byケネス・バーク
 cf.矛盾律(レヴィ=ストロース)、エドマンド・リーチ(英・新人類学者)

<言語>多義性(ポリセミー)
 )記号論
   ⇒シーニュ~システムの中の差異性の表現、誤謬の中の単位(ヴァレール)
 )意味論
 cf.チョムスキー「変形文法」
 ※閉鎖的、限定的になりやすい性質⇔語の累積的志向
  ex.「至高の現実」(A.シュッツ)、「記号の相互解釈の馴れ合い的関係」(チャールス.S.パース)、
   レヴィ・ストロースの神話、など。
<象徴>~すべての記号を開かれた状態に
 ≒夢=語り(レシ)…ex.幻想、演劇
 ※共同体が危機に直面した際に導入される、共同体の世界を再構築する手がかり
 ⇒存在の両義性意味の多義性複合的意味(ポリセミー)byポール・リクール
 )修辞法(レトリック)
 )隠喩法(メタファー)
 )換喩法(メトニーム)
 *とは意味作用の極
□「語」仲介者柔軟性文脈に対して適応できる
 )意味するもの(シニフィアン)@記号
  →構造(システム)、静的、記号的=通時(diachronie)
   [構造]①対立する諸項の組み合わせ
       ②無意識的に人の行動を限定する要因(プラクシス
       ③法あるいは規範で意識的、心理的に理解されている形式的な枠組み
    cf.コミュニタス   
 )意味されるもの(シニフィエ)@意味
  →出来事、行為、動的、循環的=共時(synchronie)

文化における秩序は、統合排除の無数の組み合わせにより成立

□文化のプラクシス≒人間のプラクシス~流動的、ダイナミック
 ・混沌秩序に変える行為(Z.バウマン)
  )同化
  )排除
  )周縁化、下位化
 ・混沌秩序相補的である
  ex.ディスコントラクション、逆定言(カウンターステートメント)byケネス・バーク
 [混沌]⇒[記号]⇒[分類]⇒[意味]⇒[秩序]
  |_______________↑
              
      [仲介者]ウィッチトリックスター
      ex.魔女(ソルシエール)腐女子
        →存在の秘密に対する感受性のゆえに、歴史の過程で、
       「秩序」の対極にある反社会的性に混沌の刻印を帯びる
 *粘っこさ:境界を越えた存在
 *徴づけ:「異人」性、不確定性~「秩序」に対する潜在的脅威…ex.女子
 *トマス・シャシュ:「ゲーム理論」

<現実>
現実に距離を置いて見るということは、理論的には可能であっても、
 日常世界を生きるために、私はこの相対化の権利を放棄している。(エポケー
 ⇒外的実存(客観的)世界としての現実
□「客観主義」:現実を一元化し、不確定要素を排除≒科学
 cf.T.h.クーン『科学革命の構造』~パラダイム
□主観的意識:世界を理解する根源的方法byフッサール「自己論者」(エゴロジスト)
 ⇒「自己」を統合する主体
 ・「自我の超越」(サルトル)
 ・「生きられる身体」(メルロ=ポンティ)

(以下は↑を踏まえた私的考察)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 ex.BL「志向性」
  [腐女子orBL愛好者]⇒[BL]⇒[秩序・世界・社会]
 ・「受」「攻」という記号を介した二者間による統合神話or相関関係を記述≒記号文学
 ・非現実的→無意識的な自我、直感≒
 ・常に背後にリバーシブルな可能性を秘めた現実のメタファー(現実の両義性or多義的現実
 ∴主観的世界(至高の現実)を理解する一つの方法である
  ⇒客観主義の克服を実践
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

□象徴的宇宙≒妥当性の体系
 ・デュルケーム:「宗教」
 ・シュッツ:「意味性の各領域」
 ・サルトル:「全体性」(トータリザシオン)
□神話:日常生活ではつながらない事物をつなぐ≒BL
 )至高の現実を再確認
 )現実αから現実βへ移行する際の緩衝効果
[夢]:忘れ去られて埋もれていたディスクール<弁述>の回復の過程
 ⇒[分解]⇒[再構築]
 ※現在のプラクシスor非活性的領域を挑発・喚起する
<ヴィクター・ターナー>
 ・コミュニティ:規範の共同体
 ・コミュニタス:広義の感性の共同体
   →規範的「構造」に対する反措定…ex.反文化(カウンターカルチャー)
 □「反=社会」構造的な型
  )過渡性(リミナリティー)~分離、周縁、再統合
  )他所性(アウトサイダー)~内なる他者=フィジカル
    cf.周縁人→外来の他者=「両義的」
    ⇒異人(ストレンジャー)
  )構造的劣性⇒コミュニタス(情緒的共同体)の基盤
    ⇒ユートピア
 ※構造の相対化…ex.[20c文学]想像力を介した支配的現実の溶解作業

□ドミナンタ<主張>≒嗜好≒ジャンル
 ・人間行為の多義機能性(ポリファンクショナリティ
 ・ロシア・フォルマニズム⇒プラハ学派
 ・[構造]=[均衡]+[撹乱]
 ・ヤコブソン「唖然とするように結び合わせ」る知的技術
 ⇒「非日常化」(オストラネーニエ)byヴィクトル・シクロフスキー
  「異化」効果byブレヒト
 ⇒グロテスクの追求=異和性
 ex.20c芸術の美学的ラディカリズム
  →象徴詩、未来派、ダダイズム、シュールレアリスム、モンタージュ理論
[ 2006/12/22 18:29 ] non-fiction | TB(59) | CM(1)
先日やっと読了しました、日本の文化理論の名著と謳われている作品です。
えーと、白状しますと過去二回程中途で挫折し、今回三度目の正直でようやく読了できました。
もう、本当にイロイロと個人的に感慨深いです。
あらゆる面で知的水準の低い私には、かなり難解な部類に入る研究書でした。
が、収穫も多かったはずです。

私はいつもノンフィクションを読む際には、キーワードやキーセンテンスと思われる箇所に、
直接本にボーダーラインを引く癖があるのですが(それゆえノンフィクションは処分できない)、
今回はボーダーラインのみならず、付箋やメモも沢山残しました。
その成果を確認したい奇特な方は、続きをどうぞ。

現在、私が最も心惹かれるジャンルというか属性というかシュミと言うべきか、
そういう興味関心の対象の一つとして、BLジャンルは確固たる位置を占めております。
(このブログを読んでくださっている方には一目瞭然でしょうが…)
が、このBL的嗜好(思考?志向?)の本質を、未だにちゃんと解説出来ずに苦しんでおりました。
というか、実のところ現在進行形で四苦八苦しているのですが…。

この研究書は、↑の私の極個人的な苦しみを救う手立てとして大いに役立ちました。
山口氏の文化理論は、BL的ジャンルに対しても応用の利く概念だと思われます。
私が従来、構造主義的記号論的概念に深く拘泥しているから、そう思えるのかも知れません。
そういう意味では、以下の記事は少し割り引いて読んでもらうと助かります。
(私自身、把握できていない部分が多々ありますので…)
[ 2006/12/23 21:35 ] tatsuki [ 編集 ]
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la aqua vita 文化と両義性
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[2007/06/13 06:15] la aqua vita
*profile

tatsuki

Author:tatsuki
気になる方は、こちらをどうぞ。
アサッテなBLが好きです♪
アンケート回答募集中!!

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