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匪賊の社会史 

エリック・ホブズボームは、学生時代に夢中になって文献を探しまくった歴史研究家。
当時は翻訳本が入手出来なくて、仕方なく丸善で原書を数点購入したのも今は昔の話。
こんなにコンパクトな文庫サイズで復刻されて、本当に感無量である。

ロビン・フッドを筆頭とする義賊神話は、世界中に溢れている。
彼らは民衆が求める“理想的な”存在だったのか?と問われれば、現実的にはかなり厳しい。
が、この種の英雄譚が人びとに語り継がれてきたというこの事実こそ、一つの社会の鏡である。
即ち、“自由”と“抵抗”の象徴(シンボル)として彼らは人びとに評価されてきたのである、と。
(逆にロビン・フッドに見られるような“正義感”という観点から見ると、それらは疑わしい)

匪賊社会は中央の権力者/集団の目からは届き難い、不安定な農村や辺境で活性化する。
逆に言うと、領域内の隅々までインフラ整備が整った環境では彼らの根は絶たれてしまうのだ。
一方で都市社会で蔓延りやすい反社会的芽は、むしろギャングと呼ばれる形態になりやすい。
匪賊は良かれ悪しかれ、農民または地方権力との共存が前提となる保守的な存在なのである。
尤も、バルカン地方のハイドゥク(クレフト)や、インドの匪賊カーストという例外もあるにはある。
が、基本は農民と半ば一体化した季節労働者集団ないしその頭領/地主といった傾向が強い。
彼らは水面下では経済的に深く結びついており、必ずしも敵対勢力という訳ではないのである。
よって、匪賊は“自由”な存在ではあるが、農民同様移動の自由は低くなる。

ハイドゥクは匪賊であると共にレジスタンスの前身であり、スイス傭兵のような武装集団である。
時にパルチザンを通じて反対勢力として抵抗を試みる場合があるが、しかし彼らは革命家ではない。
彼らが特異なのは、地域社会からの脱落者/犯罪者/被差別民も平等に受け入れていた点。
権力者たちは彼らの勢力を無視できず、むしろ自身の勢力下に置こうと工作/腐心していた模様。
余談だが、彼ら独自のルール/イニシエーションは非常に興味深い(笑)。

匪賊にせよハイドゥクにせよ、理想の社会的展望や綱領を持ち合わせてはいなかった。
そういう意味では農民同様に素朴な存在であり、社会の上部構造から利用されやすかった。
否、むしろ彼らは革命的/アナーキスティックな展望を抱き始めた時点で、匪賊では無くなる。
彼らが時に革命家と同一視されるのは、パルチザン的武装抵抗手段が似通っていたためである。
が、本質的に彼らは革命家とは呼べない。

<作品データ>
・エリック・ホブズボーム『匪賊の社会史』(船山榮一・訳、ちくま学芸文庫)2011.1
匪賊の社会史 (ちくま学芸文庫)匪賊の社会史 (ちくま学芸文庫)
(2011/01/08)
エリック・ホブズボーム

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今回は↓のメモを削りすぎて、何がなにやら分からなくなったので珍しく文章解説を入れてみた。
文章多くないし個々人のエピソードそれ自体がユニークで面白いので、物語的にもオススメ。
インドカーストやロシアの偽王台頭の顛末は、もう一度調べなおさねばならない個人的課題。
でも、やっぱり私はハイドゥク(クレフト)が好き♪



【特徴】~マルクス主義/社会学的類型化/国際的比較

□「匪賊」…《bandit》、《bandito》【伊】、《bandolero》【西】、《cangaçeiro》【葡】、《raboinik》【露】
 ・農民社会の内部における個人的ないし少数者の叛乱の形
 ・『原初的叛乱者』(Primitive Rebels)…「モデル」
 ・匪賊「神話」、「匪賊ロマンティシズム」…「匪賊小説」…ノスタルジア…英雄譚
  例)フランシスコ・サバテ・リョパル(1913-60)…ドン・キホーテ、ホメロス的、「準匪賊」

□「義賊」…《social bandit》≒「社会的匪賊」、「社会的山賊」
 ・領主と国家によって犯罪者とみなされている農民無法者(アウトロー)
 ・農民社会の中にとどまる
 ・英雄、チャンピオン、復讐者、正義のために闘う人、解放の指導者
 ∴賞讃され援助され支持されるべき人びと
 ・「貴族強盗」《noble robber》orロビン・フッド
 ⇔ギャング(職業的な「地下社会」)、略奪者(「普通の強盗」)
 ⇔ベドウィン(襲撃が正常な社会様式の一部となしている人たちの共同体)
  
ハイドゥクhaidusk)~原初的なレジスタンス戦闘者/ゲリラ部隊
 例)20C初頭のマケドニア地方
   ⇒さまざまの政府によって財政的に援助/組織された多数の匪賊を抱えていた
 ※潜在的な自由の余地
 ・コサック【露】、クレフト(klephtes)【希】、ハイダマク【ウクライナ】、ハイドゥク(Hajdú、Hajdut、Hajdutin)【洪~バルカン半島】
 ・軍事的境界の守護者/平騎士/農民蜂起/経済的理由/民族的匪賊/準政治的運動/叛乱者/季節的
 ・ボイボード(voivodes)/大公
 ・「バイラクタール(bairaktar)」~旗手/旌旗(赤or緑)/会計/兵站
 ・「集団(ćeta)」…妻や子供や土地を持たぬ変則的な社会集団
 ※ハイドゥクである間は家族をつくろうとはしなかった
  ⇒男子だけの兄弟団…例)サポコージェ・コサック団、コミタージ団(komitadji)@マケドニア
  例)ブルガリアのユダヤ女
   ⇒ハイドゥクとして生活している時期には男であり、男の衣服をまとい、男と同じく闘った⇒自由人=男
 ※建前の上では、山にいるハイドゥクは女性とのセックスを避けていた
 例)アグラファ「記載されざる」…希の山岳地方、事実上の独立…「解放区」
 ・千年王国+農民蜂起/農民革命⇒匪賊団@兵士
 cf.『水滸伝』、ラスボイニキ団@露、ダコイト団@印、シパヒSipahis、Sepoys、Spahis=兵士)団、「クルジャリ(krdzhali)」(18C末~19C初頭、ハーレム有り)

□「土匪」…《brigand》
 ・山岳、平原、沼沢地方、三角州地帯など人里離れた近づき難い地域に栄える
 ・通商ルート/主要幹道に引き寄せられる
 ∴インフラ整備は匪賊の活動を減少させる…→例)19C墺帝国
 ⇔国境地域(例、中部独)、インド(英国&あまたの土候国によって分割)←匪賊活発化
 ※匪賊活動は、貧窮化が進み経済が危機的となる時期に蔓延する傾向がある
  例)16C末の地中海地方の土匪団の増加←農民の生活状態の著しい低下byF・ブローデル

【特徴】
 ※「近代化」は義賊の栄える諸条件を奪う…例)農奴解放
 ・復古主義…→穏健、○改革者⇔△革命家
  →敬虔的、部外者(アウトグループ)に対する猜疑心
  →反ユダヤ的(バルカン地方除く) 
 ・革命運動~アナーキズムと融合/都市
  1)伝統的秩序回復がレジスタンスのシンボル
   ⇒外国人による軛~民族独立運動→「民族主義的匪賊」→レジスタンス
  2)自由への渇望…→友愛団体、宗教共同体的~義賊活動+千年王国運動
  例)バルカン戦争(1870s)/グジャール人@サハーランプル
  ※匪賊の首領が王を僭称
   →「民衆のツァー」@露、コサック=自由農民遊撃団VS.タタール人
  ※自由…→移動不可~農民社会における移動の限界
   1)農村過剰人口、「零細土地所有(ミニフンディウム)」、農民プロレタリア
    →季節的移民、兵士の供給、襲撃/匪賊活動
   2)独立と潜在的叛乱の時期=青年期
   3)農村社会に同化できず、やむなく限界状況ないし無法状態に追いやられた人たち
    例)兵士、脱走者、元徴兵

【シンボル】
 例)辮髪@中国、ヴァケロ(→カウボーイ・スタイル)@墨、ガウチョ&ラネーロ@南米、ベチャール@洪、マホ&フラメンコ@西、金と鋼の花飾りをつけた衣装@バルカン(ハイドゥク/クレフト)
 ・特殊な言葉(argot、cant、caló、Rotwelsch)~結社…賤民的職種/共同体と関連
 cf.武装~cf.マスケティア(銃士)@ガスコーニュ地方、植民地征服者(コンキスタドール)@西
 cf.部外者(アウトサイダー)~社会の鏡
 ∴非体制主義者(ノン・コンフォーミスト)/反体制主義者(アンチ・コンフォーミスト)/異端
  例)再洗礼派(アナバプティズム)/自由思想家/反立法主義者のために避難所を提供byシラー『群盗』
 ⇒「犯罪部族と犯罪カースト」/ユダヤ人/世襲的/地下社会/都市/賤民(アウトカースト)
 cf.「ラムポク(rampok)」@ジャワ
  →「呪術的・神秘的性質のグループを形成したもの」
  →盟約書+イルムー(単語、護符、古諺、呪文)…→匪賊呪術
  1)匪賊行為の精神的正当性
  2)集団のリーダーシップの機能
  3)大義の強制力
  4)二重保険政策

【経済】
 ・貨幣経済~仲買人~隊商~通行料
 ・牛(or豚)取引商人、家畜仲買人≒匪賊の指導者…一人二役
 ※両義性
 cf.ギャング/政治ボス@都市/過密スラム
 ・下位世界(サブ・ワールド)…→地下社会
 ・武装勢力/政治勢力
 ・外交的関係
 ・庇護関係(パトロネージ)
 例)プレステス―シセロ神父―連邦政府@墨
[ 2011/01/25 03:25 ] non-fiction | TB(71) | CM(0)
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